Material of Glass

By Wikipedia | 13 December 2019 | 0 Comments
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent andhas widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, forexample, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar,and historically the oldest, types of glass are "silicate glasses" based on thechemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituentof sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to thistype of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glassbottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing andcontainer glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass,composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide(Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide, also called lime(CaO), and several minor additives.
Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency,giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflectand refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing tomake optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for highspeed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallicsalts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. Thesequalities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of artobjects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicateglass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist fromearly glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or moulded intoany shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles,jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has also been used forpaperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber andmatted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulatingmaterial, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymerplastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite materialfiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicateglass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinkingglasses and reading glasses.
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